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Jul 21, 2014

What is Bencoding ?

Bencoding is a way to specify and organize data in a terse format. It supports the following types: byte strings, integers, lists, and dictionaries.

Bencoded Strings

Bencoded strings are encoded as follows: :, or key:value
Note that there is no constant beginning delimiter, and no ending delimiter.
Example4:spam represents the string "spam"


Integers are encoded as follows: ie
The initial i and trailing e are beginning and ending delimiters. You can have negative numbers such as i-3e. Only the significant digits should be used, one cannot pad the Integer with zeroes. such as i04e. However, i0e is valid.
Examplei3e represents the integer "3"
  • NOTE: The maximum number of bit of this integer is unspecified, but to handle it as a signed 64bit integer is mandatory to handle "large files" aka .torrent for more that 4Gbyte.


Lists are encoded as follows: le
The initial l and trailing e are beginning and ending delimiters. Lists may contain any bencoded type, including integers, strings, dictionaries, and even lists within other lists.
Example: l4:spam4:eggse represents the list of two strings: [ "spam", "eggs" ]


Dictionaries are encoded as follows: de
The initial d and trailing e are the beginning and ending delimiters. Note that the keys must be bencoded strings. The values may be any bencoded type, including integers, strings, lists, and other dictionaries. Keys must be strings and appear in sorted order (sorted as raw strings, not alphanumerics). The strings should be compared using a binary comparison, not a culture-specific "natural" comparison.
Exampled3:cow3:moo4:spam4:eggse represents the dictionary { "cow" => "moo", "spam" => "eggs" } 
Exampled4:spaml1:a1:bee' represents the dictionary { "spam" => [ "a", "b" ] } 
Exampled9:publisher3:bob17:publisher-webpage15:www.example.com18:publisher.location4:homee represents { "publisher" => "bob", "publisher-webpage" => "", "publisher.location" => "home" }

What is Lurker ?


In Internet culture, a lurker is typically a member of an online community who observes, but does not actively participate. The exact definition depends on context. Lurkers make up a large proportion of all users in online communities.Lurking allows users to learn the conventions of an online community before they actively participate, improving their socialization when they eventually de-lurk. However, a lack of social contact while lurking sometimes causes loneliness or apathy among lurkers.

Lurkers are referred to using many names, including browsers, read-only participants, non-public participants, legitimate peripheral participants, or vicarious learners.

Torrent file format

A torrent file contains semi-text, semi-binary data in so-called Bencoding format. Each item can be an integer, a string, an onordered list and a dictionary with key/value pairs (ordered by keys). Each item starts with a single letter except for strings (i, l, d for integers, lists and dictionaries correspondingly) and ends with letter «e». Integers are encoded in torrent files as i52e (number 52); Strings are stored as 10:bittorrent (length + colon + the string itself) in torrent files; Lists are simply recursively encoded values so it's like li123e4:worde that represents 2 items: a number 123 and a string «word»; Dicrionaries are similar to lists except they start with letter d and have a bencoded string before each value. Both lists and dictionaries can be nested; dictionaries must be sorted by keys.